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Useful glossary
10 Gigabit Ethernet IEEE 802.3
10 Gigabit Ethernet IEEE 802.3 is the standard specifying 10 Gb/s transmission for single-mode fiber or 50 μm multi-mode fiber.
AWG(American Wire Gauge)

AWG(American Wire Gauge)is a standard system for designation wirediameter; also referred to as the Brown andSharpe (B&S) wire gauge.

Acceptance Angle

Acceptance Angle, largest possible angle for launching light into anoptical fiber; this angle is used to determine thenumerical aperture (NA) of a fiber.

Access Connection

Access Connection is a physical connection at a central office connecting a local channel to an interoffice channel.


Adapter is a mechanical media termination device designed to align and join fiber optic connectors; often referred to as a coupling bulkhead or interconnect sleeve.

Aerial cable

Aerial cable is a kind of telecommunication cable which installed on aerial supporting structures. such as poles, sides of buildings,and other structures.

analog signals

Analog a continuously varying signal; signals may have an unlimited number of values, as amplitude and/or frequency may


Attenuation loss
Attenuation loss of signal in a length of cable (in dB)
Attenuation to Crosstalk Ratio (ACR) is calculated as the crosstalk value (dB) minus the attenuation value (dB); typically, ACR may be given for a cable, link or channel is a key indicator of performance for U/UTP systems.
Balanced Transmission
Balanced Transmission refers to the transmission of equal but opposite voltages across each conductor of a pair; if each conductor is identical, with respect to each other and the environment, then the pair is said to be perfectly balanced and the transmission will be immune to ElectroMagetic Interference (EMI)
Bend Radius

Bend Radius means a cable’s radius may be bent before the risk of breakage or an increase in attenuation, may also be called cable bend radius. Minimum the radius of curvature of the fiber or cable that will result in excessive signal loss or breakage.


A fibrous or metallic group of filaments interwoven in cylindrical form to form a covering over one or more wires.

Buried Cable
Buried Cable a cable installed directly in the earth without use of underground conduit; also called “direct burial cable”.
CATV see Cable Television (Community Antenna TV) the initials derive originally from Community Antenna Television; the CATV industry or its networks also are sometimes referred to as “cable” which can be confusing in discussions of cable markets.
Cable Sheath

A covering over the conductor assembly that may include one or more metallic members, strength members or jackets.

Cable Tray

Cable Tray a ladder, trough, solid bottom or channel raceway intended for,but not limited to, the support of telecommunications cable.

Color Code

Color Code is a system for identification through use of colors; fiber specified in ANSI/TIA/ EIA-598-A “Optical Fiber Cable Color Coding”.

Composite Cable

a cable containing both fiber and copper media per NEC article 770; can also be a fiber cable with both single mode and multimode fibers.


a mechanical device used to align or attach two conductors.


a measure of conductor uniformity within a pair, hence the cable’s balance; the lower the unbalance, the better the cable will support balanced transmission.

Cut-Off Wavelength

the shortest wavelength at which the propagation of one path of light can occur.


a unit for measuring the relative strength of a signal.

Dielectric Strength

the voltage which an insulation can with stand before breakdown occurs; usually expressed as a voltage gradient (such as volts per mil)

Drain Wire

the uninsulated wire laid over the component(s), used as a common connection.


Eccentricity like concentricity, a measure of the center of a conductor’s location with respect to the circular cross section of the insulation; expressed as a percentage of displacement of one circle within the other


ELFEXT (Equal Level Far EndCrosstalk) .a method to mathematically subtract out the cable’s attenuation in order to accurately compare FEXT values from onecable to another; see FEXT.

the fractional increase in length of a material stressed in tension.

this IEEE transmission protocol standard uses Carrier Sense Multiple Access/ Collision Detection (CSMA/CD)to transmit data in a network; there arethree different network to pologies thatsupport Ethernet transmissions: active ring,passive star and active star.


FEXT (Far End Crosstalk) crosstalk that occurs at the end opposite the location of the disturbed pair’s receiver; Normally, FEXT is only important in short links or full duplex transmission.


A 100 ohm cable with an overall foil shield and drain wire:formerly called Screened Twisted Pair (ScTP).

General Purpose Cable

This type of cable meets specifications for general-purpose ratings (UL-1581), and is one of three types installed in premise s networks; multimode general-purpose cablesusually have loose tube construction and are suitablefor outdoor installation in campus network segments.

Gigahertz (GHz)

A  unit of frequency that is equal to one billion cycles per second.

Ground a connection
Whether intentional or accidental, between an electrical circuit or equipment and the earth, or to some conducting body that serves in place of the earth.
Hard Drawn Copper Wire

Copper wire that has not been annealed after drawing; sometimes called HD wire.

Horizontal Cable

Horizontal Cable from ISO/IEC 11801: Connects the floor distributor to the telecommunication(s)outlet; the cabling between and including he telecommunication soutlet/connector and the horizontal cross-connect.

Hybrid Cable

An assembly of one or more cables, of the same or different types or categories, covered by one overall sheath.

IEC( International Electrotechnical Commission) 
IEEE Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers; this refers to a standards writing organization that organizes committees and oversees the development and publication of standards, including standards for network interfaces, communications protocols, and other communication technologies.
The total opposition that a circuit offers to the flow of alternating current or any other varying current at a particular frequency; it is a combination of resistance R and reactance X, measured in ohms.
Indoor &Outdoor Cable
Indoor Cable. cable designed for useindoors; these cables typically have a flame resistance rating and are not suitable for the environmental conditions experienced by outdoor cables.Indoor /Outdoor Cable cable rated for use indoors and suitable for outdoor environmental conditions.
Insertion Loss attenuation

Insertion Loss attenuation caused by insertion of a component into a transmission route/channel.

Insulation Resistance
The ratio of the applied voltage to the total current between two electrodes in contact with a specific insulation, usually expressed in mega ohms-M feet.
Integrated Circuit
A complex set of electronic components and their interconnections that are etched or imprinted on a chip.

Integrated Messenger Cable

Aerial plant communications cable with a messenger support cable within the outer cable jacket, also known as figure-eight or self-support.


An outer non-metallic protective covering applied over an insulated wire or cable.

LAN see Local Area Network refers to an on-premises data communications network, usually for linking PCs together or linking PCs to a file server and other data processing equipment.
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
A semi conductor light source without the coherent properties of a laser diode; typically used for less than 1 Gb/s transmission.
Loop Resistance
Loop Resistance sum of conductor resistance and shield resistance (DCR).
Low Smoke Zero Halogen (LSZH)

A class of cables made without halogens( i.e. chlorine and fluorine) to meet specific and strict fire safety codes.


A support strand, typically constructed of steel or Kevlar cable, used for attachment of communications cable for aerial plan.

A system or a service, or a set of services characterized by two-way communications, interactive services, and the ability to combine data, voice, and video.
Near End Crosstalk (NEXT)
Crosstalk that occurs at the same end as the disturbed pair’s receiver; normally, this is the largest contributor of noise because the disturbing pair’s transmitted signal is strongest at this point.
Outdoor Cable

Cable designed for use outdoors; these cables are suitable for the environmental conditions experienced by outdoor cables, but do not typically have a flame resistance requirement.


A cable assembly with connectors at both ends, used to join telecommunications circuits or links at the cross-connect.

Pair-to-Pair Crosstalk

The crosstalk measurement of a single disturbing pair. It can be made for NEXT or FEXT.

Passive Optical Components

Such as splitters, couplers and connectors, which do not require external power to perform their function.

Patch Cable

A length of cable with connectors on one or both ends to join telecommunications links.

Patch Cord

A length of cable with connectors on one or both ends used to join telecommunications circuits or links at the cross-connect

Patch Panel

A cross-connect system of mate able connectors that facilitates administration.

Polyethylene (PE)

A type of plastic material used for outside plant cable jackets

Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)

Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) a type of plastic material used for cable jacketing; typically used in flame-retardant cables.

Radio Frequency (RF)

Radio Frequency (RF). refers to analog signal processing and transmission technology for applications that include CATV; the term “RF” is sometimes used to refer to electronic or coaxial part of hybrid-fiber coax systems in CATV and other broadband applications.

Rated Temperature

The maximum temperature at which an electric component can operate for extended periods without loss of its basic properties.

Rated Voltage

The maximum voltage at which an electric component can operate for extended periods without undue degradation

or safety hazard.

Return Loss (RL)

A measure of standing waves independent of variation of input impedance, measured with a load equal to the desired characteristicimpedance of the cable.


 “RG” is the military designation for “Radio Grade” coaxial cable, and ”U” stand for ”general Utility”.

Riser Cable

Cable designed for use in elevator shafts, utilities columns, or other vertical shafts in multi-story buildings; because

the cable connects differentfloors of multi-story buildings, it must be designed to meet safety codes that specify a low level of flammability; riser cables are also used in telephone company central offices to connect the equipment with the outside-plant cable, which enters a “vault”, which is usually below grade.

Shield. a metallic layer placed around a conductor or group of conductors; may be the metallic sheath of the cable or a metallic layer inside a nonmetallic sheath.
Shield Effectiveness the relative ability of a shield to screen out undesirable radiation; frequently confused with the term shield percentage.
Stranded Cable
Stranded Cable multiple like units brought together; may be cable with an integral messenger support strand, see figure-eight or self-support.
Structural Return Loss (SRL)

A measure of standing waves independent of variation of input impedance, measured with a load equal to the characteristic impedance of the cable at that frequency.

Triaxial Cable
A cable construction having three coincident axes, such as conductor, first shield and second shield all insulated from one another.
Twisted Pair
Twisted Pair .any of a family of data cables with two conductors twisted together; the cabled pairs may be unshielded (U/UTP),shielded (S/FTP) or screened (F/UTP) .UHF Ultra High Frequency (300 to 3,000 MHz)U/UTP or UTP Unshielded Twisted Pair.
Velocity of Propagation (VP)
The speed of transmission of electrical energy within a cable as compared to its speed in air; also known as NVP, or nominal velocity of propagation.
A conductor, either bare or insulated.
Work-Area Cable
Work-Area Cable from ISO/IEC 11801: connects the telecommunications outlet to the terminal equipment.
Common packing styles for Cables
Wooden drum
The wooden drums we used are made of fine grade wood and the drums are best suited for winding of wires & coils. These are tested in terms of durability and length holding & load taking capacity. Our company can offer all kinds of cable products with  suitable wooden drums packing as per clients specific requirements.
Packing details:
1).Common packing length: 100m in wooden drum, 305m/wooden drum, 500m/wooden drum   
2).Outer packing :carton or pallet .
3).We offer all kind of packing style per customers' needs and requests.

Plastic reel
The plastic reel we used  are made of qualified raw materials to ensure to ship our cable products safely . These can be customized design to serve the specific requirements of the clients. Apart from this,custom labeling and printing on flanges are available
Packing details:
1).common packing length: 100m in plastic reel, 305m/plastic reel, 500m/plastic reel
2). Outer packing:carton or pallet .
We offer all kind of packing style per customers' needs and requests.

Easy pull
Easy pull is stronger that common carton ,the wire in this packing style is easy to carry ,pull ,and store .it often used in network cable packing. It is a reelless solution.
Packing details:
1).Common packing length: 50m/80m/100m/305m in easy pull
2).Easy pull can be shipped alone, or can be put on pallets.
3).We offer all kind of packing style per customers' needs and requests.

Reel in box
Reel in box is similar with easy pull packing ,but  cable is winded in a reel.The packing cost itself may be higher than easy pull styple, but the reel in box packing is more space economical.
Packing details:
1) Common packing length: 50m/80m/100m/305m in easy pull box
2) Outer packing:pallet
3) Other packing available according to clients requests
Paper reel
Paper reel packaging is usually used to protect the product against mechanical wear, tear, moisture and dirt.
Packing details:
1) Common packing length: 100m in paper reel, 305m in paper reel, 500m in paper reel 
2) Outer packing: carton, pallet
3) We offer all kind of packing style per customers' needs and requests
Coil in box
Coil in box packing is mostly used for coils within 300m. A box can load from 1 coil to more than 10 coils, and the mostly common one for bulk packing is 6 coils in 1 box, and 1 coil in 1 box for retail packing.
Packing details:
1) Inner packing:1coil/4coils/6coils in carton
2) Outer packing:pallet
2) We offer all kind of packing style per customers' needs and requests
Coil in woven bag
The woven bag are often used to semi-finished cable products's a quite large packing style 
Packing details:
1).Common packing length :1000m/2000m/2500m/5000m/6000m in woven bag  
2).We offer all kind of packing style per customers' needs and requests

Coil in plastic bag
Coil in plastic bag can protect products against mechanical wear, tear, moisture and dirt. we can see the products'shape ,color ,etc directly as below.
Packing details:
1) Inner packing:10m/25m/30m/50m/80m/100m coil in plastic bag   
2)Outer packing: carton ,pallet
2) Other packing available according to clients requests.
Coil in pallet with 1 overall carton
Coil in pallet with 1 overall carton are linked closely together to save on shipping costs, reliable,recyclable . adapt to the environmental protection of the purposes of processing equipment products in different locations,  saving a number of inventory space. removable & recyclable
Packing details:
1) 16/27/36/104/160 coils in  pallet (only for reference) 
2) Other packing available according to clients requests.

The pallets are divided into composite pallet and solid wood pallet.thereinto,solid  wood pallets must be fumigated before exportation They are used when you are sending a container load.many customers prefer to use pallet to ship the goods,because its safer and easier.
Packing details:   
1).Normal size(cm) :110*97*12   120*120*10  100*100*12    75*75*15                                                  
2).Plastic steel/wooden drum/carton on pallet
Poly bag packing
Poly bag packing can be used in short meter wire ,cable connectors ,cable assemblies packaging, it is easier to use, store and handle in.risk can be furtherly reduced through reduction of transportation & warehousing
Packing details:
1) Common packing length :3.5m/5m/10m/25m/30m/50m coil in poly bag 
2) 10pcs/20pcs/50pcs/100pcs in poly bag 
3) We offer all kind of packing style per customers' needs and requests
Retail packing
"Retail Package" is a fully boxed item with full color retail markings & descriptions.intended for a retail store to put on display on its shelves .the retail packing we offer to our customers including poly bag ,Suction card,wooden drum, plastic steel, easy pull/reel in box  etc.
Packing details:
1).Can be used for short meters cable wire or cable assemblies products packing.
2).Easy to carry
Combination packaging
Combination packaging is consisting of wooden drum ,plastic reel ,coil in carton ect. It's suitable for different meters products packing, very flexible
Packing details:
1) Common packing length: 100m in PE film, 100m in coil , 305m in plastic reel/wood drum, 500m in plastic reel/wood drum   
2) Outer packing: carton, pallet
3) We offer all kind of packing style per customers' needs and requests

Applications of different cables
Coaxial cable
Coaxial cable is used as a transmission line for radio frequency signals. Its applications include feedlines connecting radio transmitters and receivers with their antennas, computer network (Internet) connections, and distributing cable television signals. One advantage of coax over other types of radio transmission line is that in an ideal coaxial cable the electromagnetic field carrying the signal exists only in the space between the inner and outer conductors. This allows coaxial cable runs to be installed next to metal objects such as gutters without the power losses that occur in other types of transmission lines. Coaxial cable also provides protection of the signal from external electromagnetic interference.
Category 5 cable (Cat 5)
This type of cable is used in structured cabling for computer networks such as Ethernet. It is also used to carry other signals such as telephony and video.
Category 6 cable (Cat 6)
This type of cable is used in structured cabling for computer networks such as Ethernet. It is also used to carry other signals such as telephony and video.
Telephone cable
This cable is using in the user terminal equipment to the cable junction box both in the outdoor drop in and indoor usage. In order to satisfy different requirements, this cable is defined into STP and UTP. STP mainly used for the occasion for high requirements of electromagnetic compatibility. It can also used for internal cable of electronic equipment or as "Handset wire or telephone cord for subscribe sets and telephone handset cord or line cord.
Control cable
Designed as control and connecting cables to machines, tool machineries, conveyor belts, drag chain and production lines. Control cables are used for the controlling, returning circuit, protecting facilities, the wiring of electrical controlling equipments and instrument, monitoring and controlling return circuit, measurement in power distribution unit under the circumstance that the rated voltage is up to 450/750V AC. The working temperature of PVC is 7degree, XLPE is 90 degree
Alarm cable
For internal wiring in class 2 circuits of electronic equipment or TV game data transmission.
The cable is ideal for use in Security and alarm systems, Intercoms, Control and Communications Equipment, infra-red as well as micro wave or mixed technology systems to the switchboard. It is also suitable for low voltage applications that are power-limited.
Speaker cable
All the cables are used for speaker ranges, home theater or audio system, connecting power amplifier and broadcasting systems, and transmitting the audio signals amplified by the amplifier.
Power cable
Widely used in metal refining, electric power, petro-chemistry industries and urban network construction. It is suitable to be installed in duct, tray or direct burial, with rated voltage of U0/U (0.6/1KV) for transmitting electricity. It is preferably for installation indoors, in cable ducts and in industrial plants or
switching stations, underground installation with additional protection where mechanical damage is unexpected, power supply wire, suitable for general purpose power supply cord and for internal wiring of electrical and electronic equipment for indoor small electrical instrument.
Common standards for cables
Underwriters Laboratories Inc
UL is an independent product safety certification organization. Established in 1894,[1] the company has its headquarters in Northbrook, Illinois.[2] UL develops standards and test procedures for products, materials, components, assemblies, tools and equipment, chiefly dealing with product safety. UL also evaluates and certifies the efficiency of a company’s business processes through its management system registration programs. Additionally, UL analyzes drinking and other clean water samples through its drinking water laboratory in South Bend, Indiana and evaluates products for environmental sustainability through its subsidiary, UL Environment.
Canadian Standards Association
he Canadian Standards Association, also known as the CSA, is a not-for-profit Standards organization with the stated aim of developing standards for use in 57 different areas of specialisation. CSA is a provider of print and electronic standards, related training and elearning, as well as Advisory Services. CSA is composed of representatives from government, industry, and consumer group
The American National Standards Institute
ANSI is a private non-profit organization that oversees the development of voluntary consensus standards for products, services, processes, systems, and personnel in the United States. The organization also coordinates U.S. standards with international standards so that American products can be used worldwide. For example, standards ensure that people who own cameras can find the film they need for that camera anywhere around the globe.
Electronic Industries Alliance
EIA was a standards and trade organization composed as an alliance of trade associations for electronics manufacturers in the United States. They developed standards to ensure the equipment of different manufacturers was compatible and interchangeable. The EIA ceased operations on February 11, 2011, but the former sectors continue to serve the constituencies of EIA
ANSI/TIA/EIA 568 Commercial Building telecommunications Standard; it gives guidelines on implementing structured cabling within a building; it also defines the minimum mechanical and transmission performance criteria for U/UTP, F/UTP, S/FTP, coax, and fiber optic cabling.
ISO/IEC 11801
International standard for generic cabling system
American National Standards Institute
Refers to a standards organization that organizes committees and oversees the development and publication of standards,including standards for network interfaces,communication protocols, and other communication technologies.
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